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Accountant_China30_Rev,最后30天创造考研英语50分的神话

互联网 2021-01-22 14:43:44
在线算命,八字测算命理

距离考研还有一个月的时间,此时此刻一定有很多同学认为自己已经到了能力的极限,认为自己的英语成绩已经无法改变了。可是对于喜欢并且一次又一次创造神话的我而言,我认为这种想法是根本错误的,你也可以创造一个月的神话。只是神话需要方法,神话需要你在这个月里付出神话应有的代价。建议大家在考试的时候解题的顺序如下:完型——写作——翻译——阅读——七选五。因为历年的试卷答案分布是有规律的,例如,完型填空共有20个题目,每个题目又有4个选项,所以用20÷4=5。如果我们假设一个变数为X,并且设X的范围是A、B、C和D,那么我们就可以推断5-1≤X≤5+1,则X∈[4,6]。即20个题目中选A、B、C和D的题目数量都控制在4到6之间(阅读理解也遵循这个规律)。那么所有的题目如果都选择同一个答案的话就有可能得到5个题目是正确的,那么你就可以得到3分。写作中的小作文,只要你把本书指定的相关文章记忆,得到6分不是很难,主要是看格式;而大作文一般得到10分一半也是很容易的事情。翻译,只要使用本人的“剥洋葱式结构分析法”得到5分很容易。阅读的“秘密”其实并不是同学们想象的那么可怕,同学们可以参照冲刺班的相关材料相信得到一个及格的分数应该是可以的。而至于7选5新题型,因为以前没有原始数据供我们分析,所以我建议我们放弃,能拿多少算多少,完全看运气。此时我们就已经可以拿到48分了,应该说这个只是一个保底的成绩,另外2分的增长点在哪里?完型是最主要的2分的增长点,方法是只将自己认为肯定正确的进行选择,因为我们不可能一个都不会的,即使最差的学生做对3、5个还是很正常的,而将所有不确定的题目都选择同一个选项,这样就有了另外的2分。但是以上的所有的分数的前提条件是本人一再强调的:“剥洋葱式结构分析法”+历年真题阅读理解中的不认识的生词+新增200词汇。缺少这些条件一切都不可能。重点复习是阅读理解、翻译和写作重点是阅读、翻译和写作,必须要确保直至考试前每天看英语三到四个小时,“根本不必要天天看,天天看就是卖药”这种说法是根本性的误导。阅读而言,大家一定要把我上课讲解的解题思路和理念烂熟于胸。最好的办法是利用7天左右的时间专项复习考研阅读的各种解题思路和逻辑。而“考试大纲参考”上的例题是最好的练习材料。翻译建议大家不要做太多的练习,而是应该把“考试大纲参考”上的翻译题做烂做透彻。写作小作文一定要背,大作文必须掌握本书的建议句型和建议背诵的文章。考研其实就是一个体现木桶效应的考试,决定你最后能不能考上研究生不是由最长的木板决定的,而是由最短的木板决定的,因此考虑一个问题英语是不是最弱项,因为木桶装水容量由最短的木板决定的,而英语如果是你的长项的话,在最后考试阶段,能对于其他的一些科目比如政治、数学或者专业课的复习更加专注一点。英语复习的捷径——利用好历年真题英语复习中大家很容易忽略的一个捷径就是通过历年真题背单词提高阅读质量。如果你在做历年真题的过程中把遇到的大纲上有的单词就在大纲上划下来,划到最后你会发现,仅仅所有的阅读就包括了大纲上所有的单词。把这些文章就象学习课文一样的认真分析以后多多阅读,熟读,好的甚至能够达到背诵,大纲上的单词也就基本上全部解决了。并且同时通过分析题目还能掌握出题思路,找出作题技巧。一举多得,何乐不为呢?然后等你研究完完型填空、英译汉、还有原来的单词填空。这些单词就基本上没有什么问题了。只需要每周作几篇阅读理解练练手,找找感觉就可以了。当然这些单词要不时的回头熟悉,不能背过了就把它仍在一边不管了,一直保持到考试。      据统计,在考研英语四十篇中所有大纲的难词和难的意思都包含进去了。也就是说这些单词真正的掌握应该是在精读真题的过程中,四十余篇真题需要篇篇精读。 其中超纲词不足3%,常考词,会反复出现。这是最有效、直接而且保险的考研单词学习方法。由于复习时间有限,这一点就变得很重要了。    关于考研英语阅读的一些经验:    真题就是一切 !!!!    我的一个朋友分析得很有道理。那么多命题组专家一年只专心出一套真题。题目出得不可谓不精,处处陷阱,题题要命。而辅导书的老师们一个人呼啦啦一下子出了那么多套题,其命题质量不可能与真题相比,甚至会把你的思路带偏。 其实,考研的真题足够你复习之用,不必再花大量金钱和时间让其他阅读辅导教材贻误时间甚至误导你。 在真题阅读里学单词,在真题里提高阅读能力,在真题里悟出解题要领。 上次提到,新东方的阅读老师周雷说,真题四十篇里涵盖了所有大纲难词的常考用法。所以真题首先是深化词汇学习的蓝本。 其次考研文章的选材特点都有承继性,句子的复杂程度、文章的难度和常考的领域都有重复性,选用其他的阅读材料未必与考研贴近。 所以精读真题,深入分析每一篇文章的难句结构、段落结构,熟悉常考领域的词汇和引伸的意思是你提高考研阅读水平的捷径。 因为考研阅读是阅读水平达到一定水准之后才可谈及的技巧。所以精读真题是提高你考研英语成绩所必须下的扎实功夫。一切空谈的技巧都不完全灵验,比如《阅读手记》中老王的那些总结也只有你的阅读功夫过硬时才会悟得到他的所指, 如果你照搬原话生吞活剥,大概是不灵的。     当时我在复习的时候每天只做一至两篇阅读很慢很慢,但很扎实,力求捉住作者和出题者字里行间的所有秘密。一段时间之后我觉得很有效果。     另外,真题不应只重文章轻解题。 在你读通文章后, 还有一件事情要做,就是仔细分析题目和答案。考研的题目陷阱很多要慢慢领悟。 关于真题的题目:     考研英语的题目出得很细,但此细不在细节上。你必须对作者的态度把握好,你必须洞悉作者观点的变化之处,这些讲起来就比较细了。我先说说总体的体会吧。     首先,这些题目都是中国命题专家根据中国学生的习惯思维和做题习惯出的, 因此很多题目都非常容易做错,而且如果你总是按着自己的思路想的话,还会越想越觉得题目出得离谱。等隔一段时间再做一遍,你会发现,上次做对的还是对的,上次做错的还是错的。这是去年和我一块复习的几个学友无一例外的经历。如此不知悔改地一直练到考试,你的做题水平也不会有令人惊喜的进步,或者说不能稳稳地拿到阅读高分。     关键的问题就是:出题人不是你,是那些整天琢磨着怎么整倒你的专家们。 而且他们的这些阴谋不是你能左右和改变的。 所以你只有一条路了:改变自己,忘记自己的思路把自己的思路拼命往专家的思路上靠,靠得越近就越容易做对题。这个靠的过程,你可以从手头上的阅读参考书上,从网课上得到一些启发,但他们只是启发你而已,消化还得是在做真题的过程中不断地总结和体会。     总之,在这里我强调的就是千万不要忽略了历年真题的作用,把他利用好,能给你带来事半功倍的效果,省心、省时、省钱,而且还高效率。大家都重视起来吧。一、完形填空得分要领该部分要求考生所选答案使补足后的文章意思通顺、前后连贯(注意:连词、逻辑关系词)、结构完整。其测试重点包括:语法结构、固定搭配、近义词汇辨别、逻辑关系、上下文推理、语篇连接蹬,其中有12—15道题考查词汇,5—8道题考查语法和篇章结构。1、 语法结构知识:这部分在英语知识运用中占40%   ⑴虚拟语气:① If I were you, I would pursue the research and carry on the experiment until I get a result.② 短语“would rather”(或had rather)是虚拟语气的一种形式,后面接省去“that”的从句,从句中动词要用虚拟语气,其形式为动词过去式。例如:I’d rather you went by train, because I can’t bear the idea of your being in an airplane in such bad weather.③ 与“would rather”类似的句型还有A、 had hoped(后面从句的谓语形式为would+动词)B、 It is high(about) time that (后面从句中谓语要用过去式)④ Wish(后面的从句谓语用were或用行为动词的过去式,表示对现在或将来的愿望;后面的从句谓语用过去完成式,表示对过去的愿望)⑤ 另外,英语中有些表示要求、建议、提议、意愿等的形容词、动词和名词,后面的主语从句、并与从句、标语从句或同位语从句中要求用虚拟语气,形式是动词原形或should+动词原形。A、 属于该类的形容词常见的有:advisable  可取的,适当的     essential  必要的,必不可少的;本质的,基本的important  重要的     insistent   坚持的;紧迫的     necessary   必要的preferable   更可取的,更好的     B、 常见的动词有:advise  劝告;(医生的)意见     demand   要求      insist   坚持认为(should+动词原形);坚持说(时态一致)(insisted 后面用一般过去式)   propose   提议,建议;提名,推荐;求婚     order  命令     recommend   劝告     request   请求,要求     require   需要;要求     resolve   决定     suggest  建议(should+动词原形);暗示(时态一致)    urge   力劝;催促        ⑵非限定性动词:动词的非限定形式有不定式、分词和动名词① 谓语动词与主语的中心词语要一致② 由连词“or”, “either…”,“nor”,“neither…nor”,“not only…but also”等链接两个名词或代词时,谓语应与毗邻的一个取得一致。③ 名词前有“every”,“each”,“either”,“neither”,“a great deal of”(注意与a number of不同),“many a”,“a series of”等词或词组修饰时,动词用单数形式。A、 many a person=many persons +is/areB、 each person + isC、 each of sister + isD、 every of the sister + is④ 定语从句得谓语应与先行词一致。⑤ 表示时间、重量、距离等得复数名词表示总量时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:Two days is enough to finish writing this paper.2、 词汇⑴要熟记常用词组take…as  把……作为     take after  与……相象     take apart  拆卸     take away  消除,消耗take down  记下,写下     take…for   把……认为是,把……看作是     take in  接受,吸收;了解,理解;欺骗     take off  拿走;脱下;起飞     take on  呈现,具有,装出;接纳,承担,从事take over  接管,接办     take up  战区,占据;开始从事;拿起,接收     take to  喜欢,亲近⑵要掌握词汇得搭配要熟记的短语见大纲参考的P10—P15⑶归纳和区别近义词或同范畴的词continuous   不停的,连续不断的,强调中间不停顿。consistent   (人、行为、信念等)一贯的,一致的①  constant     不断的,经常的,强调始终如一地经常出现。persistent    (通常贬义)顽固的;持久的steady      牢固的;稳定的;发展平稳的    stubborn    (无理由或刚愎、反复的)坚决的,固执的② unyielding  坚决的;倔强的inflexible   不可弯曲的;坚定不移的;不屈服的surprise   使吃惊;使感到意外;奇袭;突袭;突然到来③ astonish  使惊讶,使惊奇amaze    吃惊;使惊奇mock      (含有轻视的意思)的嘲笑④tease      (通过激怒或挑衅特别是用一种不次要的方式)使打扰,使生气scorn      (非常强烈的,令人生气的)不尊敬        ⑤  contempt   (认为某人或某物不值得重视而)轻视            despise     (含有不喜欢的意思)轻视,蔑视            indignation  义愤,尤其指出于道义上的激愤。            anger      气愤,生气,是一般用语。        ⑥fury       暴怒,大怒,程度较anger要强。            rage       (暴力,不能控制的)生气            brim       (杯、碗等容器的)边缘            margin     页边的空白        ⑦  border     边缘,多指两国或两地之间分界处附近的边缘地区/边界地带;也可以指物体的边缘等。            rim       边,边缘,尤指圆形或近似圆形的物体的边缘。            verge     (道路、花坛等长着草的)边缘,引申为“某事即将发生之际”。            surpass    优于或超过某人(某物)        ⑧            exceed     多于,大于,超过,多指数量或允许的限度。            lawyer     律师            attorney    律师        ⑨judge      法官            witness     证人

二、阅读理解B(七选五)本届主要考察考生对连贯性、一致性、逻辑联系等语篇、语段整体性特征的理解,即要求考生在理解全文的基础上搞清楚文章的整体和微观结构。空白处的位置可能在主干部分的段首、段落中间或者段末,但不会使语篇的第一句,一般情况下也不会使最后一句。试题在一般情况下不可能有特别明显的词汇,句子等语言方面的提示,而是要求考生着眼于全文,在理解全文内容、语篇结构、逻辑关系(如时间、地点、因果关系、从属关系等)的寄出上做出正确的选择。

三、应用文写作这个项目不仅要求考生具有较扎实的语言基础,还要掌握应用文和短文写作的基本实用技能,熟悉段落结构特征,同时还要具备分析、综合信息的能力和较丰富的想象力。                         ↓               ↓表格题           漫画题      1、应用文写作试题概述(是真正意义上的应用文,比如求职信)        ⑴、应用文的基本类型2005年新增的对应用文写作的考查,可能性最大的依次是:书信、通知、启事⑵、应用文写作的格式和写作要点        本部分要求考生在规定时间内,按照题目所规定的内容要点,写出100字左右的书信。(80—120都是正常范围)。不要求考生写信头,信内地址以及写信时间,只从称呼开始,然后根据题目要求写出正文、结尾客套,签名统一用“李明”这个名字。        称呼是书信的开头部分,一定用dear打头。主义头衔的使用,通常对于那行,可用Mr.,学术界用Dr.和Prof.(介绍信、请求信),称呼女性多用Mrs., Ms.或Miss. Ms.可称未婚女性,也可称已婚女性。Hon.(Honorable)、用于市长、议员、大使、法官等的姓名前。Press.(President)用于称呼董事长、总经理、(求职信)会长、大学校长(请求信:环境、食堂)等。Rev.(Reverend)称呼牧师。如果不知道对方的姓名,可称呼Dear Sir或者Dear Madam, 也可用To Whom It May Concern。另外,英语书信的称呼于汉语书信不同,称呼后不用冒号,而用逗号。         应用文的最后一部分是签名。要求统一用“Li Ming”落款。(g字母与yours的s字母对齐)注意:英文信件语中文信件不同,签名下面不写日期。日期要写在信内地址的下面(Dear×××的上一行右侧)。因考试中没有要求写日期,所以考生不必画蛇添足。① 书信常用开头语 I am writing to ask If you can do (grant)me a favor.(请求信) I hear that you are seeking a tutor.(求职/推荐信) I am writing to you to ask about the meeting to be held next month.(确认信) Your letter came to (reached) me this morning.(普通意义上的回信) In reply to your letter about the college entrance examination this year, let me tell you that…(针对性回信) I have received (was delighted to receive) your letter of the 10th inst(本月十号).(这个是收信时间) I wish to apply for the job (post, position) you’re offering.(知道职位的求职信) I am writing to inquire if there would be any position available for me to work as…(未知职位的求职信) Your letter of 4th this month (dated…) was duly received.(这个是写信的日期) I am very much obliged to you for your warm congratulations.(庆贺信)② 结尾的客套语:  Faithfully yoursSincerely yours★应用文的评分侧重点在于信息点的覆盖合内容的组织、语言的准确性、格式和语域的恰当。对语法结构合词汇多样性的要求讲根据具体试题做调整。允许在作文中使用提示语中出现的关键词,但使用提示语中出现过的词组或句子将本扣分。建议背诵文章:应聘信(Accepting Request for an Interview)例1Directions: You have just received a letter from a company, which replied your application for a job and asked you to go to the interview on August 30. Please write a reply which is about 100 words and you do not need to write the address.Dear Mr. Wang,Thank you for your reply of August 20 about my application for a position. It came to hand this morning as a pleasant surprise. I am glad to tell you that I will attend the interview at the time you set for the morning of August 30. I will bring along full details of my testimonials as you suggested.I would like to introduce myself to the company and hope to be a member of it. I would certainly spare no effort to acquit myself to your satisfaction.                                                  Yours Sincerely,                                                        ×××

推荐信(Letters of Recommendation)例2Directions:You are asked to write a recommendation of your student for a position of marketing clerk about 100 words please express your reason clearly.You do not need to write the address.Dear Mr. Manager,I am writing this letter to recommendate my student Wang Gang who is seeking the position of marketing clerk of your company.He says you are satisfied with his presentation at the interview and require recommendation to be attached to his exceptional academic performance in the college.As his political instructor, I think Mr.Wang is well qualified for the position he seeks. He always ranks among the top five in his grade, has passed CET-6 and obtains a certificate of intermediate computer skills. Mr. Wang is a studious, selfless, and aspiring young man, and he is awarded the title of Three Good Activist by the college every year.I believe he is a good candidate worthy of your consideration.                                                 Your Sincerely,×××

祝贺信(Letters of Congratulation)例3Directions: Please write a letter of about 100 words to congratulate your friend Li Ming, who did well in the passed college entrance exam and has been enrolled in Peking University.You do not need to write the address.Dear Ming,We are very happy to know that you have successfully passed the college entrance examination this year and have been admitted into Peking University. Allow us to give our most sincere congratulations on this exciting occasion.You have all along been working hard at your professional studies, and you are excellent in most subjects. Your success shows that only hard work can yield good results.We take this opportunity to express our best wishes to you. Wish you greater achievements in your college education.                                                 Yours Sincerely,                                                    ×××求助信(Letters of Asking for Help)例4Directions: You want to study further for a Master’s degree and you are preparing for the entrance exam. Since you have difficulty in English, you should write a letter around 100 words to ask for help from your good friend Fang.You do not need to write the address.Dear Fang,I am sorry that I have to ask a favour of you, with the hope that you will be kind to help me.I have been longing to apply for the entrance examination for MA candidates for a long time because I want to pursue advanced studies.Unfortunately I find myself far from the required standard, especially my very poor English. At this moment, the personal friendship leads me to approach you with the request, whether you can manage to give me some constructive guidance. I promise to be a diligent student. If you agree, I will come to your house once a week at a time most convenient to you.Thank you very much for your kind help on many occasions in the past.                                                      Your Sincerely,                                                        ×××求职信(Letters of Applying for A Job)求职信的内容一般包括以下部分:1)写信的缘由;2)个人情况简介,例如;年龄、性别、文化程度、工作经历、工作技能、个人专长等;3)推荐人或证明人姓名以供录用方查询;4)约定面试时间。通常随求职信附上个人简历和两三封推荐信。例5Directions:You are ×××, an to—be graduate from JiLin University, majoring in English. Write a letter to a company applying for a position, Your letter should include1) an introduction of yourself.2) your qualification for the position.3) asking for an interview.You should write 100 words or so, you don’t need to write the address.Dear Sirs,I am a graduatee from Jilin University of Foreign Language Institute. As a student of English for Business, I hope to work in a foreign company after graduation.In the past four academic years, I have proved myself to be a straight A student, awarded a succession of scholarships. My English is particularly good and German happens to be my second foreign language, which will live up to the requirements set by a wholly-owned foreign company like yours.I apply for the position of assistant to your marketing project manager. You will find me a good team player, self-motivated and eager to learn. I believe I can be of value to your company.I should be very happy if you would arrange an interview with me.                                             Yours Sincerely,                                                    ×××例6Directions:You are a senior of computer science. You’d like to be an intern for an IT company. Write a letter to present your willings:You should clear:1)your education background.2)your purpose of being an intern.You should write about 100 words and don’t need to write the address.Dear sirs,I am a senior of computer science in Beijing University of Technology. I would like to work as an intern in your company. As I have a wide interest in computer, I will do whatever job assigned to me, in software development or in technical support. One of my advantages is that I am able to work conscientiously under pressure. The more challenging my task is, the better it will be done.My main purpose is just to put into practice what I have learned from the classroom in the past few years and to learn about my own ability in practical work. Remuneration is not yet taken into consideration.I am enclosing a resume and looking forward to hearing from you.                                          Yours Sincerely,                                              ×××邀请信(Letters of Invitation)例7Directions:You are planning to ask your friend to join an outing. Express your idea clearly as follows:1) details about what you are going to do2) when and where you will go out.You should write no less than 100 words and don’t need to write the address.Dear Li Ying,Haven’t seen you for a long time. How have you been? I am missing you all the time. As the weather is splendid now, Jack、 Lucy and I have made a plan to go out to the countryside by bike. Each of us may take food for the picnic, which we will have at the hillside. The countryside must be very lovely, with grass and trees growing flourishingly, flowers full bloom and bright sunshine. We can enjoy the scenery to our hearts’ content, at the same time and take some pictures as a memory . It is possible for us to meet at the bus stop 8 a. m. I am sure we will have a good time. Do come and join us.Yours Sincerely,×××感谢信(Letters of Thankness)例8Directions:Your friend Jenny gave you a hand when you were in depression because of your mother’s death. Write a letter to express your thankness.1) the reason for the letter2) What you will do to overcome the sorrow.The address is not necessary and it should be no less than 100 words.Dear Jenny,I do not need to tell you how greatly I appreciate all you have done for me these days and how grateful I am for the comfort and understanding you gave me when I needed them so desperately.No one knows better than you how important my mother meant to me and what an aching void my life has become without her. But I am trying to take your advice and I hope that returning to my work next week will help heal the sorrowI really do not know what I would have been without you. Thank you again for everything you have done for me!                                                Yours Sincerely,                                                     ×××求学信(Letters of Applying for Study Chance)例9Directions: If you are a student of Tianjin University and you want to apply to the Graduate School for pursuit of the International Business Program of the New York University. Write the applying letter like following:1) Declare all your situations in Tianjin University.2) What do you want to apply for?You should write about 100 words and don’t need to write address.Dear Mr Smiths,Thank you for your last letter.As your require, I have written a personal statement to give a detailed description of my academic and work experience in Tianjin University. I also wrote my reasons for my applying to your Graduate School for pursuit of the International Business Program.I have two letters of recommendation for me. One of them is from an English Professor, which proves that my English has reached an advanced level. The other is from an economics professor, which certificates that I am good in the field of economics and business management. Both of the letters will be mailed directly to you.My GMAT score is 2160. I haven’t received my TOFEL score yet. But I will send it to you as soon as I know.Best Wishes                                              Yours Sincerely,                                                ×××请求信(Letters of Request)例10Directions: You are about to write an application for you want to get a rise of your salary. Please express your reasons clearly in about 100 words.September 10, 2002Dear Manager,I make bold to write this letter to you. One year ago I joined your firm as an apprentice, receiving $ 500 per month during the period of training. Now I became a full-time clerk afterwards for a few days, but my salary has remained the same. As the cost of living is rising, would you consider an increase of my salary? I will not wonder too much but the same as other clerks in our firm. I pledge myself to continue to serve the firm to the best of my ability .Many thanks                                             Yours Faithfully,                                                    ×××四、大作文试题概述⑴纯文字提示A、 提纲式(91—96)B、 规定情景式(四六级考过,但考研从没考过)⑵文字、图、表提示  考试结果表明,这种命题方式更有利于测试考生综合分析各类统计数据、信息和素材的能力,已经运用英语进行阐述、归纳、表达的能力,避免考生套用事先备好的范文。3、 短文写作的学习方法① 提高英语表达能力② 掌握短文写作的要领1)、熟悉和掌握常用句型A、 相似性a、A and Bhave something in common(A 和B有共同之处)B、 相异性a、A differs(is different) from B in that…(A不同于B在于……)例句:China’s condition differs from ours in that China has the largest population in the world.b、Contrary to (on the contrary)…(正相反)例句:Contrary to our estimation, the economic situation of the country is gradually getting better.C、 权衡a、 The advantages outweigh the disadvantages(利大于弊)b、 A is superior to B(A优于B)c、 … varies from person to person(……是因人而异的)D、 过渡性句型(承上启下,使新观点不至显得过于突兀、武断)a、 It is true that most jobs are a series of more or less unpleasant chores, but it doesn’t follow that that’s all they are.b、 It is fairly well known that Vitamin C is indispensable to health. But it is probably less well know that taking it excessively may do harm to the human body.c、 This story also illustrates the importance of seizing an opportunity when it presents itself. It is one thing to be offered an opportunity; it is another thing to take it and use it well.E、 表示倍数语比例关系的句型近年来图标作文经常出现,考生需要熟悉和掌握一些常用的句型来解释图标,分析和表达数据间的倍数和比例关系:a、 Asia ranks first both in area and in population among the seven continents. Europe is second to Asia in population, but in area it is the last but one.b、 We all hope that a country’s population should be proportion to its area. Unfortunately, the reality often goes against our will.c、 And in august as many as 39car accidents were recorded, indicating an increase of about 79 percent as compared with the number of January.               ★ “time”常用来表达倍数,总结其搭配,大致有一下几种                                 as large as                                 the size (volume, etc.) of                                 that of                  倍数+times+                                 over that of                                 greater (形容词比较级) than                                 as against                   例如:                3 times as large as                        是……3倍(比……大2倍)                3 times the size (volume, etc,) of            是……3倍大(比……大2倍)                17 times that of                          是……的17倍                17 times over that of (for)                  是……的17倍                17 times greater                          比……大17倍                3 times as against                         增加了2倍(为……3倍)                twice/thrice as much as                    是……的2(3)倍                在表达倍数时,还可用“倍数+fold”。F、 引用图标内容时的过渡句型a、 As is revealed in the graph/table,…G、 描写曲线走势的常用句型a、 The population rose rapidly till it reached 600,000 in 1900. Since then, though the growth continued, the momentum has slackened off.b、 Before 1970 the birth rate remained level. Then in 1970 it fell till it reached 30 per thousand.c、 The birth rate in this region rocketed to the highest peak in 1963.d、 Although prices fluctuated between 1963 and 1972, overall, the trend was downward.e、 The economy went up and down in a zigzag way.H、 描述图标常用的概括性句型a、 The two graphs depict the same thing seen in two different ways. The first diagram simply records…. The second graph throws a new light on…b、 If drivers continue to drive more carefully and further strengthen their sense safety.2)熟悉和掌握英语文章和段落的基本结构   A、启Generally speaking,In general,It goes without saying that     many teachers expect their pupilsOn the whole,               to do more work than they can.At present/Lately/NowCurrently/Recently,B、 承What is more,In addition,Also,                    parents do not realize that driving their childrenWhat’s more serious,       to study harder than called for can injure their health.At the same time,Besides thisC、 转However,Nevertheless,On the other hand,         many students have no choice but to burn the candle at bothUnfortunately,            ends in order to get good grades and please their patents.But it is a pity thatStill,D、 合Accordingly,As a result,Therefore,          some students may very possibly fail in school because ofThus,              this pressure to study in excess of what is required.To sum up,Eventually★ 考试写作文时的几个注意事项☆ 字迹公正,不要连笔,用黑色水笔写☆ 遇到不会写的单词可以用自己学过的单词拼凑出一个外形像单词的词☆ 如果出现句子与句子需要颠倒位置,此时不要管☆ 写错单词的话,在单词上用可以看得清但不要过分明显得斜线☆ 如果发现少些了单词得话,把缺少的单词加在两次之间,如果加不进去就不要管了。☆ 如果不出意外的话,文章写成三段式。

考研英语作文的写作技巧一、考研作文的类型

考研英语作文可分为两大类型:提纲作文和图表作文,2002年考试大纲又新增了应用文。

1991年至1996年写作题目构架均呈同一模式,即写作题目的写作指导(Directions)均包括三个基本要素:1)标题;2)提纲;3)起始句(Openingsentence)。三要素从不同方面为短文的写作提供了依据———标题限定短文的基本发展方向,提纲规定短文的基本构架,起始句则提供短文的起点。写作提纲均给出了三个基本项:1)Presentsituation/state(问题的提出);2)Reasons/…(对与问题相关因素的讨论);3)Mycomments/suggestions(问题的解决)。

1997至2004年作文题目属图表作文。图表作文的写作指导不像提纲作文那样为短文提供标题、提纲和起始句三要素。这种作文题目的写作指导中仅对短文提出了二至三项要求。而这些要求则类似提纲,故这类作文往往可以按照所给要求自然分段。图表作文还给有不同形式的图表或图画,且图表又多配有数据或说明。如果说提纲作文是把提纲各项目的信息扩展充实而谋篇成文的话,那么,图表作文则是一种信息的转换。也就是说,写此类作文时,首先要以题目中的要求(requirements)为指导,审慎解读图表,准确把握图表传递的信息,将其扩展成文。

从命题趋势上看,提纲式作文将逐渐被图表和图画作文取代,其目的无非是防止押题。命题者设计试题时会考虑作文的内容、文化背景以及考生的语言水平。校园生活、社会热点、环境保护、科学技术、业余生活都是常规的出题范围。

应用文包括书信、摘要、报告、备忘录四种,由于版面所限,恕不能一一介绍。

二、考研英语作文的总体评分原则考研作文的写作要素体现在阅卷人员所依据的评分原则和评分标准———总体评分(GlobalScoring)之中。阅卷人员就是凭对文章的总体印象和总体表达效果给分的,而不是按语法、词汇、拼写、标点等错误的累计数目多少来扣分。这表明作文是就内容和语言两方面给分。语言和内容是一个统一体,要求内容切题、表达清楚、意义连贯、句法多变、语言正确。

1)内容切题:不能走题、偏题。

2)表达清楚:要让别人知道你想说什么,不要用你认为能看懂的汉语式英文句子,比如:He would help you in no word.(他帮你简直没话说。)It would not say he was not hard.(这并不是说他不刻苦。)这样的英语句子只能让阅卷人员捧腹大笑,然后给你“温柔一刀”(降低作文档次)。

3)意义连贯:中英文化差异造成思维方式和文字表述方式的不同,英文表述更注重事实,所以写英语作文不要过多的进行心理、环境描写,120个字的作文结构要缜密,理由和例子要简洁有力,说明问题,不要东拉西扯。

4)句法多变:为避免文章平淡、呆板,可使用不同的句式:强调句、倒装句、否定句等等,比如:Deep down do we know…

5)语言正确:不要犯低级的语法错误,比如:Iis…

三、考研英语作文的写作方法    写英语作文和写汉语作文是一个不同的过程。根据非英语专业大学生的实际水平,要求他们用英语表达他们丰富的思想,是不可能的。所以写作文成了一个难题。提高写作的一个捷径是模仿。一个写字写得好的人,都是通过读帖的过程,然后模仿。如果一开始就自创一派,肯定是一笔烂字。写作文一样,一定要模仿。所以,考生提高英语作文能力的第一步就是掌握一些通行的英语作文模式,再举一反三。比如,分析原因是目前考研作文的最常见写作部分,请看下面分析原因段落的通行写作模式:

There are some possible reasons for the present situation.(主题句)First,______________.(第一点原因)Second,____________.(第二点原因)Finally,_____________.(第三点原因)Asaresult,____.(主题句的重申或深化)

像此种模式,几乎适用于一切分析原因的段落,不论是提纲作文还是图表图画作文,均可使用。这种写作模式给人一种条理清晰、逻辑缜密的感觉。

2004年研究生入学考试已经临近,此时,英语其他部分再提高考分是很难的,但作文部分还有相当的潜力。要提高作文的考分一方面要靠学、靠背,另外一个重要方面是靠练。在考前这段时间,每个星期练习一至两篇作文,逼着自己写,每次调好闹钟,开始的时候40分钟写一篇作文。写一段时间后,手就熟了,逐渐过渡到25分至30分钟之间完成一篇文章。这样到考试的时候,才能游刃有余。由于时间宝贵,选择练习题目要十分谨慎,首先要把过去近5年的考试作文试题练一遍,然后可以选择一些比较新的题目写。

 

新增专业词汇归纳一、生物类:44医疗:16artery   n. 动脉, 要道vein   n.血管, 静脉, 叶脉,纹理, 心绪v.使成脉络, 象脉络般分布于 abdomen  n. 腹, 腹部 belly      n. 腹部, 胃 vi. 涨满bowel   n. 肠   adj. 内部, 同情心gut    n.[复]内脏, 肠子, 勇气, 剧情,海峡  vt.取出内脏, 摧毁(房屋等的)内部装置hip   n.臀, 忧郁  adj.熟悉内情的  vt.使忧郁, 给(屋顶)造屋脊  int.喝彩声 thigh   n.大腿, 股pharmacy   n.药房, 药剂学, 配药业, 制药业, 一批备用药品 physiology   n.生理学 sneeze   n.喷嚏   v.打喷嚏pregnant   adj.怀孕的, 重要的, 富有意义的, 孕育的 susceptible   adj.过敏的;易受影响的, 易感动的, 容许...的  n.(因缺乏免疫力而)易得病的人herb   n.药草, 香草benign   adj. (病)良性的, (气候)良好的,仁慈的,和蔼的tumour / tumor   n.[医]瘤, 肿瘤, 肿块 饮食:11addict     vt. 使沉溺, 使上瘾  n.入迷的人,有瘾的人barbecue   n. 吃烤烧肉的野餐beverage    n. 饮料 calcium   n. [化]钙(元素符号Ca) calorie   n. 卡路里 carbohydrate   n. [化]碳水化合物, 醣类 cocaine   n. 古柯碱,可卡因spicy   adj.加香料的, 出产香料的, 辛辣的;下流的staple  n.主食;钉书钉, 主要产品(或商品), 主要成分, 来源  adj.主要的, 常用的, 大宗生产的  v.把...分类, 把...分级例steak   n.(供煎, 烤等的)肉, 鱼 toxic   adj.有毒的, 中毒的 生态:17barren   adj. 不生育的,贫瘠的,空洞的 n. 荒地browse   v./n. 浏览, 吃草, 放牧gender   n.[生理或语法] 性 genetic   adj.遗传的, 起源的 habitat    n.(动植物的), 产地、栖息地, 聚集处 harassment   n.骚扰,侵袭;烦恼 harsh   adj.粗糙的, 荒芜的, 苛刻的, 刺耳的, 刺目的howl   v.嚎叫, 怒吼,喝住  n.嚎叫, 怒号 hound    n.猎犬vt.带猎犬狩猎,卑鄙的人,追捕,激励,纠缠 mammal   n.哺乳动物optimum   adj.最好的,最佳的;最有利的 pilgrim   n.最初的移民(清教徒);圣地朝拜者, 朝圣slaughter   n/v.屠宰, 残杀, 屠杀soar   v.高飞, 滑翔, 剧增,  n.高飞范围, 高涨程度 spine   n.脊骨, 书脊, 地面隆起地带, 中心, 剌 stalk   n.茎, 柄, 梗, 秆  v.(打猎时)潜随;昂首阔步tropic   n.回归线, 热带  adj.热带的 二、人文类:42宗教与历史:15cardinal   n.枢机主教,红衣主教 adj.主要的,最重要的 Christ  n. [基督教]救世主(特指耶稣基督) Clergy   n. (集合称)圣职者, 牧师, 僧侣, 神职人员 chancellor   n. 长官, 大臣 dean  n. (大学)院长, 主持牧师,  (基督教)教长 formidable  adj.强大的, 令人敬畏的, 可怕的, 艰难的 hierarchy   n.层次,层级,等级 ideology   n.意识形态 majesty    n.最高权威, 王权, 雄伟 peer   n.同等的人, 贵族 vi.凝视, 窥视 vt.与...同等, 封为贵族 prophet   n.先知, 预言者, 提倡者ritual    n.典礼, (宗教)仪式, 礼节  adj.典礼的, (宗教)仪式的 salvation   n.拯救, 救助 sovereign   n.君主, 统治  adj.至高无上的, 君主的, 独立自主的, 完全的 superstition   n.迷信电视剧:8caress    n. 爱抚, 接吻 vt. 抚爱 juvenile   adj.青少年的, 幼稚的 n.青少年, 少年读物 comic   n. 滑稽演员  adj. 滑稽的, 喜剧的 script   n.手稿, 剧本, 原本 scrutiny   n.详细审查 serial   adj.连续的  n.连载小说,系列剧 trash   n.无价值之物, 垃圾  v.捣乱,破坏staple  n.主食;钉书钉, 主要产品(或商品), 主要成分, 来源  adj.主要的, 常用的, 大宗生产的  v.把...分类, 把...分级例艺术与时尚:11antique    n. 古物, 古董  adj. 古时的, 过时的album   n. 集邮本, 照相簿, 签名纪念册;集锦密纹唱片renaissance   n.复兴, 复活, 文艺复兴, 文艺复兴时期 sculpture  n.雕刻,雕塑, [地理]刻蚀  v.雕刻,雕塑,刻蚀 ballet   n. 芭蕾舞, 芭蕾舞剧, 芭蕾舞乐曲balcony  n. 阳台, 包厢, (戏院)楼厅auditorium   n. 听众席, 观众席, 会堂, 礼堂 audio   adj. 音频的, 声频的, 声音的 guitar   n.吉他, 六弦琴  vi.弹吉他hip hop 这个大家应该都知道:)repertoire   n.(准备好演出的)节目, 保留剧目, (计算机的)指令表,社交:8amiable  adj. 和蔼的;亲切的anguish   n. 痛苦, 苦恼 vt. 使极苦闷, 使极痛苦   vi. 感到痛苦arrogant   adj. 傲慢的, 自大的sociable   adj.好交际的, 友善的, 喜欢群居的 temperament   n.气质, 性情, 易激动, 急躁solidarity   n.团结;一致 solitary   adj.孤独的,喜欢独处的 solo   n.独奏曲   adj.单独的  三、法政类:14恐怖:6 assassinate    vt. 暗杀, 行刺 blackmail   n. 勒索, 勒索所得之款 vt. 勒索 bully   n. 欺凌弱小者  vt. 威吓, 威逼 escort    n. 护卫(队), 护送, 陪同(人员)v. 护卫, 护送, 陪同 riot   n.暴乱, 骚动, (植物, 疾病等)蔓延, 放荡 v.骚乱, 放纵, 挥霍slaughter   n/v.屠宰, 残杀, 屠杀刑事犯罪与审判:8bruise   n. 瘀伤, 擦伤  v. 打伤, 撞伤 burglar   n. 夜贼legislation   n.立法, 法律的制定(或通过) legitimate   adj.合法的, 合理的, 正统的  v.合法 plea    n.恳求;辩解;托词,答辩;抗辩 rape   n.掠夺, 强奸, 葡萄渣, 油菜  v.掠夺, 强奸 sneak  v.偷偷摸摸地做adj.暗中进行的n.鬼祟的人, 偷偷摸摸的行为statute   n.法令, 条例 四、经济类 11破产:5accountant    n. 会计(员), 会计师 asset      n. 资产, 有用的东西 auction   n. 拍卖   vt. 拍卖 audit    n.审计, 稽核, 查帐 vt. 稽核, 旁听  vi.查账redundant   adj.多余的 建筑与交通:6air-conditioning   n. 空调 airport   n. 小型民用机场, 私人飞机降落场artery   n. 动脉, 要道blueprint   n.蓝图, 设计图, 计划  vt.制成蓝图, 计划cab     n. 出租马车, 出租汽车, 计程车,驾驶室 vi. 乘出租马车 housing   n.供给住宅, 住宅群, 机架, 住房供给

 

考研必备专业词汇归纳Legal terminology 法律术语Law 法律draft  法案,草案Government bill  政府议案to pass a bill, to carry a bill  通过议案to enact a law, to promulgate a law  颁布法律ratification, confirmation  批准law enforcement  法律的实施to come into force  生效decree  法令clause  条款minutes  备忘录report  判例汇编codification  法律汇编legislation  立法legislator  立法者jurist  法学家jurisprudence  法学legitimation  合法化legality, lawfulness  法制,合法legal, lawful  合法的,依法的to contravene a law, to infringe a law, to break a law  违法outlaw, outside the law  超出法律范围的offender  罪犯to abolish  废止,取消rescission, annulment  废除,取消repeal, revocation, annulment  废除(法律)cancellation, annulment, invalidation  废除(合同)annulment  撤消(遗嘱)repeal rescission  撤消(判决)revocation  撤消immunity  豁免,豁免权disability, legal incapacity  无资格prescription  剥夺公权constitutional law  宪法canon law  教会法规common law  习惯法criminal law  刑法administrative law  行政法civil law  民法commercial law, mercantile law  商法law of nations  万国公法,国际法international law  国际法natural law  自然法labour laws  劳工法fiscal law  财政法Civil Suit Law, Code of civil law  民事诉讼法Criminal Law  刑事诉讼法Copyright Law  著作权法penal code  刑法典code of mercantile law  商法典civil rights  民事权利,公民权利human rights, rights of man  人权(customs) duties  关税death duty, death tax  遗产税attorney general  首席检查官,检查长jury  陪审团juror  陪审员lawyer, solicitor  律师,法律顾问assistant lawyer  见习律师counsel for the defence  辩护律师,被告律师attorney  代诉人,代理人Courts 法院court of first instance  一审法院(庭)criminal court  刑事法院(庭)civil court  民事法院(庭)regional court, Court of Appeal  地区法院Court of Cassation  上诉法院High Court  高级法院 (美作:Supreme Court)International Court of Justice  (联合国)国际法院conciliation board in industrial disputes  劳工纠纷调解委员会arbitration tribunal, court of arbitration  仲裁法庭juvenile court  少年法庭court-martial  军事法庭Law Courts  法院,法庭Punishment 刑罚penalty  处罚prison, gaol  监狱 (美作:jail)imprisonment  监禁death sentence, death penalty  死刑life imprisonment  无期徒刑hard labour  强迫劳役 (美作:hard labor)fine  罚款embargo  扣押local banishment  驱逐出境attainder  剥夺公民权和没收财产compensation  赔偿extradition  引渡bill of sale  抵押证券lease  租约copyright  版权patent rights  专利权alienation, transfer, assignment  转让personal property  个人财产movables  动产real estate  不动产mental derangement, alienation, insanity  精神错乱fingerprint  指纹corpse  尸体naturalization  入籍,归化will  遗嘱heir, legatee  继承人inheritance  遗产marriage by proxy  委托代表结婚to sue for divorce  申请离婚Medicine 医学doctor, physician  医生,医师,内科医师family doctor  家庭医生neurologist  神经专家psychiatrist  精神病学专家dentist  牙医师surgeon  外科医师nurse  护士hospital  医院clinic  诊所to get vaccinated  接种sick person, patient  病员,患者to be sick, to be ill  患病sickly  多病ailment, complaint  疾病pain  疼,痛indisposition, slight illness  不适unwell, indisposed  不适的affection, disease  疾病wound  创伤,伤口injury  损伤spot  点,斑sprain, twist  扭伤fracture  骨折symptom  症状diagnosis  诊断case  病例epidemic  流行病contagion  传染fever  发热attack, access, fit  发作coughing fit  咳嗽发作to take to one's bed  卧床to sneeze  打喷嚏faint, fainting fit  晕厥 to feel sick  恶心to lose consciousness  失去知觉 coma  昏迷diet  饮食treatment  疗法to get better, to improve  好转cure  治愈relapse  复发Disease 疾病anemia, anaemia  贫血 cancer  癌 cold  感冒,伤风,着凉(head) cold  患感冒 gout  痛风headache  头痛 influenza, flu  流感 insanity  精神病 Operation 手术Surgery  外科anesthesia, anaesthesia  麻醉blood transfusion  输血Insurance 保险fully comprehensive insurance  全险third-party insurance  第三者伤亡保险life insurance  人身险accident insurance  事故险insurance against theft  防盗窃险no-claims bonus  因未申报而扣除的保险赔Magnetics 磁学magnetism  磁学,磁性magnetic field  磁场flux  磁通量magnetic induction  磁感应magnet  磁体,磁铁electromagnet  电磁体electromagnetic  电磁的pole  磁极coil  线圈Aviation 航空civil aviation  民用航空plane, aircraft, airplane  飞机airliner  班机jet, supersonic plane  喷气机airliner, passenger aircraft  客机medium-haul aircraft  中程飞机long-range aircraft, long-haul aircraft  远程飞机propeller-driven aircraft  螺旋桨飞机jet (aircraft)  喷气飞机turbofan jet  涡轮风扇飞机turboprop  涡轮螺旋桨飞机turbojet  涡轮喷气飞机by air, by plane  乘飞机airline  航空线passenger cabin  客舱tourist class  普通舱, 经济舱first class  一等舱waiting list  登机票名单customs formalities  报关单boarding check  登机牌airport  航空港air terminal  航空集散站tarmac  停机坪air hostess, stewardess  空中小姐, 女乘务steward  乘务员aircraft crew, air crew  机组, 机务人员pilot  驾驶员, 机长takeoff  起飞landing  着陆to board a plane, get into a plane  上飞机to get off a plane, alight from a plane  下飞机non-stop flight to  飞往, 直飞in transit  运送中的air pocket  气潭, 气阱Universe 宇宙world  世界orb  星球,天体cosmos  宇宙cosmography  宇宙结构学cosmogony  宇宙起源学cosmology  宇宙论earth  地球sphere  天体,球面globe  球space  空间sky  天vault of heaven, celestial vault  天穹heavenly body  天体planet  行星planetary  行星的interplanetary  生星际的star  星morning star  晨星evening star  昏星shooting star  流星polestar  北极星comet  彗星tail  彗尾asteroid  小行星aerolite  陨石satellite  卫星constellation  星座nebula  星云galaxy  银河ring of Saturn  土星环Milky Way  银河orbit  轨道apsis  拱点equator  赤道zenith  天顶epicycle  本轮

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